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Of course, after they survive the initial exposure they reproduce themselves and make a new colony of bacteria.
Now, every bacterium in that colony is a clone of the original resistant bacterium and so all of them are resistant to that particular antibiotic to the same degree.
The same limitations seem to be present when it comes other functions that exist at a similar level of functional complexity (i.e., having a similar minimum sequence size and specificity of amino acid residue arrangement for a minimal degree of selectable function).
This might be a very good clue to the existence of a real evolutionary pathway, but not necessarily.
Antibiotics proved to be wonder drugs in that they killed infection by bacteria without significantly harming the host, if at all. Never before had nature and sickness seemed so much within the control mankind. Shortly after the general usage of antibiotics began the microscopic world revealed its genius for becoming resistant to antibiotics.
It truly seemed like a fulfillment of Darwin's prophetic vision and the firm establishment of his Theory of Evolution as unshakable.
It is extremely unlikely that such complex information could arise in a single mutation step, and in fact it does not.
Mutation can cause the loss of control of its production, so much greater amounts are produced, and a bacterium producing large quantities of penicillinase will survive when placed in a solution containing penicillin, whereas those producing lesser amounts will not.
This requires the bacterium to have DNA information coding for production of a complicated enzyme (penicillinase), which specifically destroys penicillin.
In the proposed evolutionary pathway from a DD-peptidase to a beta-lactamase, each and every step needs to increase beta-lactamase activity in a selectable way or there will be a neutral or even detrimental block in the pathway.