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06-Aug-2019 00:17

Therefore, the expectation of the present review on the fundamentals, instrumentation and applications of LIBS, including most recent achievements, is to help those who want to be introduced to the technique while providing up-to-date information on instrumentation, applications and its real potential for micro and remote essentially non-destructive and direct analysis.Simplicity is one of the main characteristics of a LIBS system.The spectrum contains qualitative and quantitative information which can be correlated with sample identity or can be used to determine the amount of its constituents. First, the relevant historical and theoretical concepts associated with LIBS are presented; then the main practical aspects of the several experimental and instrumental approaches employed for implementation of the technique are critically described; the applications related in the literature, including those making use of chemometrics, are classified and exemplified with relevant and recently published work.

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The impinged radiant energy of the pulse must be higher than the breakdown energy for the sample material.The last 26 years have witnessed the results of the efforts made by a number of companies and research laboratories towards the development of commercial instruments, of new applications and of theoretical models providing a profound insight into the fundamentals of LIBS and associated phenomena.