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Cognitive advances encompass both increment in knowledge and in the ability to think abstractly and to reason more effectively.
The study of adolescent development often involves interdisciplinary collaborations.
For example, researchers in neuroscience or bio-behavioral health might focus on pubertal changes in brain structure and its effects on cognition or social relations.
Sociologists interested in adolescence might focus on the acquisition of social roles (e.g., worker or romantic partner) and how this varies across cultures or social conditions.
In addition to changes in height, adolescents also experience a significant increase in weight (Marshall, 1978).
The weight gained during adolescence constitutes nearly half of one's adult body weight.
A thorough understanding of adolescence in society depends on information from various perspectives, including psychology, biology, history, sociology, education, and anthropology.
Within all of these perspectives, adolescence is viewed as a transitional period between childhood and adulthood, whose cultural purpose is the preparation of children for adult roles.
Furthermore, even within a single nation state or culture there can be different ages at which an individual is considered (chronologically and legally) mature enough for society to entrust them with certain privileges and responsibilities.Such milestones include driving a vehicle, having legal sexual relations, serving in the armed forces or on a jury, purchasing and drinking alcohol, voting, entering into contracts, finishing certain levels of education, and marriage.Adolescence is usually accompanied by an increased independence allowed by the parents or legal guardians, including less supervision as compared to preadolescence.Physical growth (particularly in males), and cognitive development can extend into the early twenties.
Thus age provides only a rough marker of adolescence, and scholars have found it difficult to agree upon a precise definition of adolescence.
The testes primarily release testosterone, and the ovaries predominantly dispense estrogen.